HEADACHES ARE very common, everyone experiences them. There are two broad categories:
Primary, in which headache and its associated features are the disease in themselves,
and secondary, those caused exogenously, such as headache associated with fever.

Primary headache disorders:
? Migraine
? Migraine without aura
? Migraine with aura
? Tension-type headache
? Cluster headache

Secondary headache disorders:
Headache attributed to:
? Head and neck trauma
? Cranial or cervical vas cular disorder
? Non-vascular intracra nial disorder
? A substance or its with drawal
? Infection
? Disturbance of home ostasis
? Disorders of cranium, neck, eyes, nose, ears, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other cranial or facial structures
? Psychiatric disorder

Tension headaches, the most common type, generally develop gradually and often involve the entire head as well as the neck and shoulders. They probably are not caused by increased muscle tension, although muscle relaxation techniques can be very useful in treatment.

Migraine headaches are ‘bad headaches’. With classic migraine, a feeling that a headache will develop precedes the actual headache, followed by visual phenomena such as dark or bright spots, streaks of light, or tunnel vision (aura). The headache usually develops on one side. It is throbbing in nature, accompanied by nausea and increased sensitivity to light and noise.

Migraine headaches are vascular headaches, because they involve changes in the diameter or size and chemistry of blood vessels that supply the brain. These are treatable and often preventable, and most people with migraine headaches do not even experience prodrome or aura.

Cluster headaches are those lasting from minutes to hours and occurring every day at a similar time over a period of weeks. They are sharp and typically have a sudden onset (explosive in quality). People with cluster headaches often describe the pain as similar to an ice pick. They are typically one-sided and usually begin around the eyes or temple area.

? To avoid headaches, employ good health habits.
? Get adequate sleep, healthy diet and regular exercise.
? Quit smoking.
? Relaxation and stress reduction therapies can diminish the frequency and intensity of headaches.
? Alternative therapies like yoga and other physical relaxation exer cises help.
? Any over-the-counter pain medication like aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen sodium or acetaminophen can be very useful.
? Any headache medica tion, prescription or over-the-counter, can cause headaches if taken on a daily basis. They have other more serious and noxious side effects.

? Severe, sudden headaches.
? Headaches accompanied by loss of conscious ness, alertness or sensa tion, confusion, a seizure or other neuro logical and/or personality changes.
? Recurring in one partic ular area such as an eye or temple.
? Recurring with high intensity or frequency.
? Accompanied by neck stiffness and fever.
? Those associated with head injury, even if the injury was a week ago.
? Change in the nature or frequency of headaches.
? Temporary change in vision or visual acuity.

Healthy relationships can help you to overcome Professional Stress

Do you go crazy over heaps of files while making presentations and filing reports in the office? Does meeting deadlines and working under pressure send your blood pressure soaring? If your answer is yes, then get alarmed because it might lead to many lifestyle disorders in the long run. Instead of building up the tension and crashing, you can easily beat the stress right in your office by following simple techniques and exercises.

Mostly stress starts due an undisciplined lifestyle. Skipping meals and having fast food at the wrong time disturbs the body clock. Avoid overeating, sugar, fatty food and caffeine. Fix a timetable for your lunch or dinner and make sure you stick to it. This will not only help in reducing stress, but also prevent from gaining more weight, which is a common problem faced by employees working on the desk. Dr Deepak Raheja, a psychologist at The Hope Foundation gives more tips on how to de-stress at the workplace. He says, "One should avoid having more than two cups of tea or coffee and tobacco because initially it stimulates the mind, but in the long run it leads to a crash. On the other hand, sipping green tea, herbal tea, fruit juices or lemon juice helps in detoxification and clears the lactic acid formation that causes stiffness in the muscles."

Another important factor that helps in preventing stress at the workplace is to maintain a good relationship with colleagues and bosses. It is very important to define boundaries of the work, advices Dr Raheja. He says, "Pressure in office usually builds up when there is mismanagement or no planning. To begin with, maintain a healthy relationship with your co-workers so even if you get stuck at a point, there are people around to help you. Do not complicate or mess up your relationship with colleagues and if there are issues with deadlines clear them with your boss directly."

Most of the physical and mental problems also rise due to a sedentary lifestyle that most office employees lead. Sitting at one place all the time and being immobile for many hours at a stretch is harmful. Dr Raheja says, "People working on the desk for long hours should take frequent breaks and do some stretching exercises. This helps in removing stiffness of limbs. Simple breathing exercises like inhaling and exhaling for five minutes will also bring a relief."

Apart from limbs other body parts like eyes, fingers and the brain also need rest. While working on the computers for long time, use an anti-glare screen. Do easy exercises to keep the eye muscles strain free.

Says Dr Raheja, "Shut your eyes for five minutes and do the progressive muscle exercises (PMR). These simple contraction and relaxation techniques relax the eye muscles. Visualising something beautiful and pleasant with your eyes closed helps in relaxing the mind and body."